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Head Transplant Surgery and Artificial Intelligence

Is it possible to exchange the heads or organs of two person? Can we transfer the memories or brain of one person to another person? Have you ever listened about body organ transplantation?  What if we will be able to transplant the heads? A surgical technique used to fix the head of one person on another person’s body is called head transplant.  It is quite dangerous and the success rate is very low. Can we use the surgery of Head transplant and AI ?  All of these questions are interesting and we will try to answer all these questions in this article.

What is
the head transplant?

A surgical technique in which head of one organism grafted on other’s body. During the head transplant experiments sometimes the head of the recipient removed and sometimes not. In the head transplantation, sometimes recipient head removed and sometimes not.

Figure 1 is showing that a rat has two heads. In this head transplantation, another head attached and the first head not removed.

Figure 1 : Rat Head Transplant

In some cases, first head of the recipient removed before attaching the other head.

History
of head transplant:

A French surgeon Alexis Carrel who in the sense of organ transplantation had formulated enhanced surgical approaches to link blood vessels. In 1908 he collaborated with the American Charles Claude Guthrie to attempt the grafting one dog’s head on a second healthy dog; later on, the grafted head showed certain reflexes but quickly slowed and the dog was killed within a few hours. It was the first step to head transplant and later Carrel earned the noble prize. 

1954:

adimir Demikhov, done experimentation in which he grafted a dog’s upper body and head, with the front legs, to a new animal; the plan focused on how to deliver the blood supply to the donor’s upper body and head then not to the nervous system. The dogs lived a couple of days in general and one of them lasted Twenty-nine(29) days. In the year 1965, Robert J. White carried out a series of studies in which he tried to graft only the isolated dog’s brain vascular system on normal dogs to discover how to deal with this problem. In 1970, He made 4 experiments where he cut off a head of the monkey and linked another monkey’s blood vessels to it; he did not try to link the nervous systems.

2012:

Xiaoping Ren published his work in 2012, in which he grafted the mouse head onto another mouse body; again the emphasis was on how to prevent the blood supply loss; the head grafted lived up to 6 months with his protocol.

2013:

Sergio Canavero issued a procedure that he said would make the human head transplantation possible.

2015:

Ren published his work in 2015, where he cut off the heads of the mice but kept the brain stem in position and attached the donor head vasculature to the recipient’s body; this research tried to determine whether the body of the recipient animal can be stayed alive without life support.

2016:

Ren and Canavero in 2016, published a study of attempting neuroprotection methods which they supposed should be explored for possible usage in a head transplantation technique; they addressed different procedures for connecting the vasculature, use of various hypothermic levels, use of the blood substitutes and the possibility of using hydrogen sulfide as a neuroprotective agent.

Challenges
in head transplant:

There are several challenges in head transplant: first of all, there are one million nerves like fiber that are connecting the body with the brain and it is compulsory to reconnect them in right place to move and control the body according to mind instructions. Like any organ transplant, it is important to control the response of immune response to prevent rejection in a transplant. Transplant rejection the rejection of transplanted tissues by the recipient’s immune system. The brain is also heavily dependent on an uninterrupted flow of blood to supply nutrients and oxygen for the removal of waste products, with harm quickly setting in at normal temperatures as blood flow is reduced.

Control the nervous systems:

Ultimately, it is important to control the nervous systems in the head and body in numerous ways. The autonomic nervous system regulates important functions such as heart rate and breathing and is mainly controlled by the stem of the brain; this can no longer function if the recipient’s head is removed. In the end, the risk of neuropathic chronic pain is high.

Artificial intelligence in head transplant:

Artificial intelligence is currently being used in renal, liver, kidney and other organ transplantation. It is being used to predict the patient survival rate and improving transplantation techniques and results. Artificial intelligence can be helpful to transplant a head In different ways.  It can be used to perform the experiment and train the neurosurgeons in the simulations instead of real-time that is dangerous and risky. As it is nearly impossible to reconnect the one million nerves that are connecting the brain and body therefore, artificial intelligence can be used to design the nano robots that can perform these kinds of surgeries.

Artificial intelligence based monitoring system:

Actually, it’s difficult to learn the pattern of these nerves and reconnect in the same order but artificial intelligence can be used to learn the pattern of these nerves and reconnect them in the same order.  An artificial intelligence based monitoring system can used to supply the oxygen and nutrients and control the waste produced when the recipient’s head separated from his body. In this way, he can live longer than usual and surgery can be performed with

Conclusion:

Head transplant and AI approach in heart transplant, a surgical technique in which the head of some organism grafted to another organism. This is a highly risky, dangerous and difficult task. Many neurosurgeons and scientists are trying to transplant the head but results not satisfactory and no recipient survived. It is because of the complex structure of the brain-body connection. But artificial intelligence can be helpful in this work in different ways.

Support of AI:

If the head transplant becomes successful it can lead to many wonders that can be amazingly good or bad. People that have body cancer of some other serious disease will be able to change their bodies. Humans could live long by replacing their bodies with robotic bodies. There have been many experiments but no success achieved. Artificial intelligence can provide support in this regard.

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